In Sofia, the food-water-energy-environment Nexus unfolds within a struggle to reconcile an outdated/inadequate infrastructure for meeting EU sustainability targets, coupled with the highest energy poverty and vulnerability rates in the EU (Bouzarovski et al, 2011; Hiteva, 2013). As a city in transition from a planned economy towards a devolved market economy, Sofia provides useful points of comparison with Kampala and Guarulhos that have also experienced marketization of basic services in the last two decades.